**Facts and Formulas**

To buy the **right size liner** measure the length in feet of the completed
excavated area, add twice the maximum depth in feet and add 2 ft for overlap,
**X**, the measure of the width in feet add twice the maximum depth in
feet and add 2 ft for overlap.

--For Example: Take a pool that measures 8' in length, 12' in width and
2' deep. You would have to take the length of 8', add twice the depth, which
is 4', and then add 2' to calculate a final measurement of 14', To calculate
the width you take the measurement of 12', add twice the depth, which is
4', and add 2' to calculate a final measurement of 18'. The liner size you
would need for this size pool would be 14' x 18'.

**Underlay** fabric should be used around the __SIDES__ of the pool
where most abrasion occurs and leaks appear. Sand 2 - 3" deep is best
for under the bottom of the pond. Use liner scraps to pad along inside walls
where stone will be placed.

To calculate the water **volume** of your pond, multiply the average
length x the aveage width x the average depth to arrive at cubic feet. Multiply
cubic feet x 7.5 to determine gallons.

To minimize water quality problems, we suggest **stocking **no more
than 1" of fish per __cubic feet__ of water (i.e. 53 cubic feet
= 8 -10 fish 4-5" in size).

Filter pumps should **circulate the pond** every 2 - 4 hours. Effluent
type ("solids handling") pumps are best for filtration.

To estimate water **volume required for a watefall or stream**, use
the basis of 100 GPH per inch of width (i.e. 1200 GPH for a 12" wide
waterfall.) This provides a minimal (+/- 1/4" deep) sheet of water.
For a "heavy" flow and for streams, multiply this figure by 2,
3 or 4. Be sure channel edges are high enough to contain this water flow.

**Pump flow rates**, assuming smooth bor, flexible, non-kinking tubing
as large or larger than the pump's outlet, are determined by the __VERTICAL
lift - measure__ from water surface (base pool) to highest point of outlet.

Energy efficient **"mag drive" pump** have limited lift ability
- check the charts.

To maintain a **healthy natural balance** in a pond:

- Use 1 bunch of oxygenators for every 1-2 sq. ft.

- Cover 60% of the water surface with a combination of water lilies, floating
plants (such as hyacinths) and "marginal plants"

- Add one Japanese Trapdoor Snail for every 1-2 sq. ft.

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